Showing 34 ideas for tag "cancer"

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Cancer and clot: What is the incidence and timing of thromboembolism after cancer diagnosis

Conduct research to understand the epidemiology of thromboembolism after cancer diagnosis and identify the contributing factors. Thromboembolism can cause treatment dilemma as many anticancer treatments cause thrombocytopenia. Better understanding of the timing and risk factors can provide evidence-based management of cancer patients without the risks of life threatening bleeding or thromboembolism. Possible risk factors... more »

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Are there diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers for cancer antigens within large random libraries of non-biological molecular shapes?

We developed a robust method to synthesize molecular libraries of non-biological molecular shapes (10^8 variant molecules) and then down-select individual ligands for diagnostics of disease states. We successfully applied the method to infectious and auto-immune diseases, and have explored the utility of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and TAA antibodies as cancer biomarkers. We propose to use our innovative method as... more »

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Would the addition of non-selective beta-blockers to cancer therapy result in better survival?

Animal models are compelling that activating the beta-adrenergic pathway (via stress) results in tumor growth and metastasis. Beta-blockers blunt this effect in animals. All of Us could design a randomized intervention trial to test this potential benefit in humans. An observational approach could also be taken with careful attention to pharmacoepi principles and biases such as confounding by indication.

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To develop/refine novel technologies (related to GPS or GIS) that could help us better define community contextual exposures.

The built environment is only one contextual exposure of interest to investigators who study these factors in relation to disease (and even these function variably across rural and urban areas). New technology could assist in better clarifying a fuller scope of residential exposures, including what elements/exposures the All of Us participants actually come into contact with.

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For all cancer types, develop a cohort-wide system to collect detailed data on the molecular characterization of the tumors.

In order to continue to move the field of cancer research forward, it will be imperative to collect detailed data on the molecular characterization of the tumors for All of Us participants who are diagnosed with cancer. Without these data (which cancer registries lack in completeness), cancer research within All of Us will be hampered. Stratification by these details will be extremely valuable for valid cancer studies... more »

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Is the seminal fluid microbiome associated with incident prostate cancer risk?

Prostate cancer has long been suspected to include an infectious etiology, although no agent has been identified. It is possible that one specific virus or bacterium is not significant, but rather the characteristics of the entire microbiota to which the prostate is exposed (e.g., the abundance and diversity of all microorganisms). This may be capturable by examining the seminal fluid microbiome.

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How can we improve outcomes for men diagnosed with prostate cancer?

Although prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the U.S., many men have indolent tumors that are unlikely to cause death in a man’s lifetime. Determining which prostate tumors are likely to lead to death is of critical clinical importance to prevent unnecessary treatment and unwanted side-effects. Understanding factors related to disease etiology and progression and developing risk models is essential... more »

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How does tobacco use reduce the efficacy or increase the morbidity of cancer treatment?

Existing evidence does not adequately evaluate the effects with consideration of the patients’ past history of tobacco use and the tobacco use during and after cancer treatment. The toxicity and expense of many cancer therapies warrant a better understanding of how concurrent tobacco use undermines efficacy or increases morbidity.

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AoU’s sample/measures uniquely allow for modeling high-burden disease pathways specified by the biopsychosocial ecological model

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Biological, psychological & social domains interact at multiple levels (genes, human & environment microbiomes, stress, behavior, broad SES & environment) outlined by the biopsychosocial ecological model (BPSEM). The BPSEM specifies pathways aligned with the AoU pillars of biology, lifestyle, & environment. Simultaneous examination of the interacting domains and levels of the BPSEM is now computationally possible and... more »

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What are the long-term health effects of using hair dyes?

Hair dyes are commonly used in today’s society, but the long-term health effects are not known. Many hair dyes contain chemicals that are thought to be potentially carcinogenic. Studies have suggested that hair dying may be associated with an increased risk of lymphoma and possibly breast cancer; however, few prospective studies have been conducted. Given the extensive use of hair dyes, particularly among women, even... more »

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To develop or optimize a non-invasive BIOMARKER that can be used to measure the experience of stress in children and adults.

The impact of psychosocial stress on child and adult health risk is increasingly appreciated. The measurement of this exposure is currently poor, and All of Us has the opportunity to develop or refine biomarkers that could help push this field of research forward in a valid way for the future. Such biomarkers could be a part of individual studies of stress and disease, and could also be used as a gold standard to develop... more »

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Does psychosocial stress influence time to cancer recurrence or cancer survival for various tumor types?

In animal models, stress is a trigger for tumor growth and metastasis, yet we have not adequately addressed this question in human cancer patients or survivors.

All of Us could longitudinally assess the biological experience of psychosocial stress (via biomarker or wearable technology) at specified times in the cancer survivorship period, and conduct an analysis of time to recurrence or time to death.

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How does chronic stress influence the persistence of oncogenic viruses or bacteria in otherwise healthy adults?

Chronic stress has significant suppressive impact on the immune system and would influence the risk of infection-associated cancers if high risk infections are allowed to persist. In general populations and healthy adult populations, this question has not been addressed. It would involve serial measurement of oral or anogenital human papillomavirus, or even helicobacter pylori.

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Why do individuals with autoimmune diseases have an increased risk of lymphoma and how can we prevent it?

Studies have shown that individuals with autoimmune diseases and other immune disorders are at increased the risk of developing lymphoma later in life, but the biological mechanisms are unclear. Better characterization of the risk, specific lymphoma subtypes involved, and the impact of treatment along with an understanding of disease mechanisms is critical for prevention of lymphoma in this highly susceptible population.... more »

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