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Submitted by (@jatkinso)

What genes are associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) and its co-morbid pain conditions?

Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD), is a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the jaw joint and muscles that control jaw movement. The 2014 US National Health Interview Survey reported 4.6% of adults reported pain in the face or jaw in the previous 3 months. TMD often overlaps with other pain disorders, including headache, low back pain, and chronic widespread pain. Identification of genes and gene ...more »

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Submitted by (@jatkinso)

What genetic factors and environmental factors are associated with dental caries?

Dental caries affects 90% of US adults and is more severe in underserved populations. Caries is caused by a complex biofilm and severity is influenced by dietary intake of sugars. Recent studies have identified caries-susceptibility alleles, some of which may be modified by fluoride use. However, more studies are needed in diverse populations. Understanding genetic factors influencing dental caries may improve caries ...more »

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Submitted by (@rena.jones)

Understand the determinants of ambient environmental air pollution exposures in a large scale, geographically-diverse population

Exposure to air pollutants in the ambient (indoor and outdoor) environment is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including cancer. A key challenge for cancer studies is the lack information on individual-level activities and other determinants of personal exposures over the lifetime; existing studies have had to rely on assumptions about time spent in microenvironments. Moreover, most data are from urban ...more »

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Submitted by (@mgarciaclosas)

What are the determinants of risk for different breast cancer subtypes?

Breast cancer represents a major public health problem. In 2017, >250,000 women received a first diagnosis of invasive and >60,000 of non-invasive breast cancer in the US. This is a heterogeneous disease with respect to morphologic, molecular and genomic features, defining subtypes with distinct etiology and clinical behavior. Understanding the causes of different subtypes is needed to improve risk assessment and inform ...more »

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Submitted by (@britton.trabert)

Which formulation of newer generation oral contraceptives influence cancer risk?

Oral contraceptive (OC) use is associated with decreased risks of several cancers and current use increases risk for breast cancer. Most studies are limited to women who used early generation OCs—which contained higher estrogen concentrations and androgenic progestins compared to drugs used today. Research suggests that newer drugs are still associated with early breast cancer risk, however the influence on other cancers ...more »

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Submitted by (@moorest)

What are the metabolic features of people who develop cancer, compared with those who do not

Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death in the United States. Recent discoveries within cancer biology highlight that reprogrammed metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Whether there are detectable metabolic perturbations that precede and/or predispose to development of cancer in individuals is not known, however. New metabolomics technologies make it possible to assay 1000s of metabolites simultaneously and could be ...more »

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Submitted by (@jdpollockmail.nih.gov)

Persistent opioid use after surgery in previously opioid naive patients

The fundamental question in addiction research is why some people become addicted while others who are exposed abused substances do not. There is an opportunity to answer this question for opioid addiction and respiratory depression in surgical patients. About 5 to 10 percent of surgical patients who are pain free and opioid naïve, given opioids during and after surgery, persist in opioid use 12 months after surgery ...more »

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Submitted by (@fearnp)

What if any are the differences in health outcomes for genetic versus self-reported demographics?

What if any are the differences in terms of cancer incidence and treatment outcomes for genetic demographics (biological sex, ethnicity) versus comparable self-reported demographics (gender, race, nationality)? The goal of this research would be to explore the relative contribution on disease, health, and outcome of genetically determined demographic characteristics versus personal, social or culturally determined demographic ...more »

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Submitted by (@bcuthber)

How can we best determine and validate domains of behavioral functioning to achieve precision assessments for mental disorders?

Assessment and treatment of mental disorders increasingly focus on neurocircuit-based abnormalities in functional domains such as emotion and cognition. There is a need for computational modeling to define and validate critical dimensions of psychopathology, using optimal behavioral tasks and patient-reported outcomes to develop refined diagnoses and outcome measures. Large samples are required for modeling analyses that ...more »

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Submitted by (@jenna.norton)

What characteristics define women with Urinary Incontinence who respond to midurethral sling surgery, versus those who don’t?

Midurethral sling surgery (MuSS) outcomes are inconsistent. We lack knowledge of outcome moderators. This study will identify a prospective subcohort of women aged 18+ with incident successful and unsuccessful MuSS. Hypothesized moderators of MuSS outcome spanning the social ecological model (e.g., urinary microbiome, comorbidities, BMI, physical activity, race, occupation, income) will be compared across those with successful ...more »

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